Needs identification

First step of designing fire detection and alarm system in projected building , should be evaluation of early fire detection request. In this context, respectively;

a) Protection of Certain part or complete building,

b) The type of system to be installed in building,

c) Fire detection and alarm system interaction with other fire protection system.

This issues should be decided, respectively.

Protection basis of certain part or complete building

Relevant substances in CEN/TS 54-14 as below.

5.3 Parts of the building needing cover

5.3.1 Extent of cover

The parts of the building to be covered or the types of system to be installed may be specified by a third party, such as by an authority having jurisdiction or by an insurance company. Where the extent of the system is not specified by a third party, or where there is a desire to install a more extensive system, the following items should be considered in assessing the risk in each area:

a) Probability of ignition;

b) Probability of spread inside the room of origin;

c) Probability of spread beyond the room of origin;

d) Consequences of a fire (including probability of death, injury, loss of property and environmental damage);

e) Existence of other methods of fire protection.

5.3.2 Scope description

Protection scope can be explained as follows:

a) Total protection : Complete building protection,

b) Zonal protection: One or more zones protection in building,

c) Escape way protection: provides to use escape way prior escape way is filled with fire or smoke,

d) Local protection: protection for one device or function that is not formed all fire zones.

e) Equipment protection: Specific device or equipment protection

5.3.3 Total cover

A total cover system is an automatic fire detection system covering all spaces in the building other than those specifically exempted by these guidelines.

5.3.4 Compartment cover

A compartment cover system is an automatic fire detection system covering only some parts (usually the most vulnerable areas) of the building. The boundaries of a compartment cover system should be fire compartment boundaries; within those boundaries the cover should be the same as that of a total cover system. If a partial cover system is to be used, then the parts of the building to be protected should be specified in the documentation of 5.6.

5.3.5 Escape route cover

A system protecting only the means of escape is intended to give warning of a fire in time for people to escape before they become trapped by smoke or heat. Such a system should not be expected to protect people who might be in the room of origin of the fire; it is intended only to ensure information for those not immediately involved. In general, smoke detectors installed on the escape routes would be expected to give warning of fire in time for people to escape along those routes. However, in some cases of fire in rooms adjacent to escape routes it has been found that smoke can be cooled by passing from the fire through narrow passages (such as door cracks) and can then cause smoke-logging at head height or below before ceiling-mounted detectors can operate. If such cooling is considered likely then protection of escape routes may require the installation of fire detectors in adjacent rooms.

5.3.6 Local cover

Local cover may be provided to protect particular functions, special equipment or areas of particularly high risk. The area of local cover need not be isolated; it can be within an area of total or compartment cover, but given a higher level of protection than that given by the more general cover. Local cover on its own can provide good protection against fires starting within the protected area, but can give little or no protection against fires starting outside that area.

5.3.7 Equipment cover

Equipment cover is provided to give protection from fires starting inside particular pieces of equipment. The detectors providing equipment cover are usually mounted within the equipment enclosure, and can hence detect a fire at an earlier stage than can detectors for more general cover. As with local cover, equipment cover on its own can provide good protection against fires starting within the protected area, but can give little or no protection against fires starting outside that area.

5.3.8 Areas not needing cover

If there is no special conditions, in some areas are defined as low fire risk area. (Article A.5.3.8).

A.5.3.8. Areas not needing cover by automatic detection may include:

a) Bathrooms, shower rooms, washrooms or water closets, provided that they are not used for the storage of combustible materials or rubbish;

b) Vertical shafts or vertical cable ducts with cross-sectional areas of less than 2 m2, provided that they are properly fire protected and fire-stopped where they pass through floors, ceilings or walls, and do not contain cables concerned with emergency systems (unless the cable can resist fire for at least 30 min);

c) Unroofed loading bays;

d) Unventilated frozen food stores with gross volumes below 20 m3. Voids (including under-floor and above-ceiling voids) need only have independent cover by detectors if:

e) There is likely to be extensive spread of fire or smoke outside the room of origin through the void before the fire is detected by detectors outside the void; or

f) A fire in the void is likely to damage cables of emergency systems before the fire is detected. Voids which :

g) Are less than 1 m in height; and

h) Are less than 10 m in length; and

i) Are less than 10 m in width; and

j) Are totally separated from other areas by incombustible material; and

k) Do not contain fire load densities in excess of 25 MJ of combustible material in any 1 m2, (see Annex D); and

l) Do not contain cables concerned with emergency systems (unless the cable can resist fire for at least 30 min) need not have independent detector cover.

As a result, If there is authorities, administrator, user etc. or fire consultant and insurance company, protection advice can be requested according to the related projected building. If protection scope is not specified as written, in case of this you have to decide your design according to risk assessment for early detection in areas that doesn't need any protection. If protection scope is not specified as written to project owner by authorities, administrator, user etc. and fire consultant ,insurance company. Project owner is directly responsible in case of any deficiency.

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